This fascinating article describes two ideas about oil production that were new to me: 1. It is made by microbes a long way down inside the Earth. 2. It is made by nuclear reactions going on in the middle of the earth.
The first idea came from a Cornell geologist named Thomas Gold. According to the article, “some geologists were so incensed by Gold’s ideas they petitioned to have the government remove all mention of it from the nation’s libraries.” That is so strange (and no source cited) you might think the whole article is made-up but Gold explained his ideas here (short) and here (long).
Thanks to Carl Willat.